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In all the historical areas, the planners ensured a flexible and future-proof IT infrastructure. Comprehensive areas of the building technology, the locking system, the video surveillance system, along with hotel, guest and event Wi-fi, all operate over the network. This system is distinguished by the fact that through the wide range of components in the entire system — from the backbone switch to the video surveillance camera — is equipped with end-to-end D-Link technology. The company ITS has installed a D-Link network solution to create a future-proof and scalable infrastructure both on the previous campus and also in the Oderberger public pool.

A high-performance Wi-Fi network is available in all areas for our hotel and event guests. The flexible LAN operates fast and reliably, and thanks to the low installation and maintenance efforts of the D-Link products, our costs have also been kept to a minimum. Equipping a hotel of this size with the complete technology solution requires both time and in-depth experience, which is precisely what ITS Information Technology Services have to offer. The system integrator has very successfully supported the GLS Campus, well-known beyond Berlin, with its own hotel, more than 66 seminar rooms of different sizes and a restaurant.

When the GLS Languages Centre purchased the historic Public Bath which was adjacent to its own campus, it quickly became clear that the technical planning of the new hotel would also be assigned to the system integrator. As a long-term partner of D-Link, Oliver Warnke and his team started by defining a usage concept with the owner which specified the applications to be covered by the IT-infrastructure of the future Hotel Oderberger and its events area:.

All the applications in the hotel require a reliable, stable network with a future-proof capacity.

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Due to its positive experiences the GLS Languages Centre took the decision to commission ITS with the roll-out of the huge project — including the construction management of all external outsourcing. As a first phase the system house jointly developed the main structure of the network with D-Link. Both the individual components of the stack and the associated switches were wired together with fibre optic cables. All other end-devices are connected from the three central network rooms with copper wiring.

The switches have a total of over ports. Half of these ports are in permanent use with the other half made available for events. One challenge that had to be planned in detail was the Wi-Fi coverage throughout the historic building. Several constraints had to be considered here. These are controlled centrally via two redundant DWC wireless controllers. With optional upgrade licences up to access points per controller and up to access points in a controller peer group can be supported.

In order to further increase security in the very extensive building complex of the Hotel Oderberger, ITS also installed in transit areas and to monitor emergency exits and escape routes, 25 compact surveillance cameras with full HD and power-over-Ethernet functionality DCS and ten D-Link DCS outdoor HD cameras in the external area. All images are monitored centrally so that any danger points can be identified immediately. Throughout the project the huge benefits of central planning and implementation became clear. The cooperation between the different suppliers was managed by ITS and the approval process was performed by the ITS project team through, of which valuable time was saved.

Barbara Jaeschke —co-owner of the hotel together with her husband Dr. The company ITS installed D-Link network solution to create a future-proof and scalable infrastructure both on the previous campus and also in the Oderberger public pool. Indoor pool or building: The Oderberger Public Bath was opened in The building is now gleaming again and even the historic indoor pool can be used once again for swimming. Behind your hotel bed, you look deep into the eyes of Captain Jack Sparrow, while on the other side a discreet door leads directly to the private lounge of a cinema — whether you are a real film buff or just enjoy a good movie, Cinema 8 makes dreams come true.

A reliable and stable network ensures perfect interaction between all components and offers Wi-Fi Internet access for up to 2, guests at peak times. The whole network was planned and realised by experts from Netree AG with high-performance D-Link equipment. Cinema 8 AG, founded in as a private initiative, initially operated as a cinema and bar. Building work on a complete entertainment centre started in Since the complex was opened in November , expectations have been exceeded every quarter, thanks in no small measure to the creative ideas of the Cinema 8 team and the high quality of service.

The planning team had put in a lot of work in the run-up to the opening in Many hurdles had to be overcome and quick decisions made. While the fabric of the building was under construction, it became apparent that the network infrastructure had not been sufficiently taken into account. An expert service provider and high-quality network technology which could meet the requirements needed to be found rapidly.

The D-Link products impressed us from the outset. The network infrastructure is a crucial aspect of the Cinema 8 concept, because very little would function without it, including in the restaurant and event area. Orders are taken at the table directly via tablet by the guests or by the staff and sent straight to the bar.

Cashless payment with mobile credit card readers is being used increasingly and this requires special software solutions for planning and control. The same applies in the cinema area of Cinema 8, which is equipped with the latest projection technology, and for the associated hotel operation. A standardised internal network for telephony, advertising and information systems digital signage , restaurant and cinema operation. D-Link components are used throughout the network. A total of eleven stackable, managed DGS Layer 2 switches are distributed across various server rooms.

These function as the central Wi-Fi management systems for the three different task areas: pay desks and payment terminals, event locations and hotel guests. Users access the respective Wi-Fi networks via nearly 40 Dual-Band Access Points installed throughout the whole complex. Due to the solid walls in certain parts of the building, Netree installed a comparatively large number of Access Points to achieve full coverage.

A range of security functions ensure continuous availability of the Wi-Fi network and protect it from unauthorised access. Transforming itself from a one-man business to such a large operation was a big challenge for Cinema 8. For this reason in particular, it was important for the management team to have an expert partner by their side that could provide a complete service.

The entertainment complex was designed to look like an airport, and the whole operation needed to function with the same high efficiency. The D-Link equipment has stood the test time since they were installed. The earlier network for the card terminals, which was initially maintained as a backup, has now also been removed. They will continue to support us with our planned expansion of Cinema 8.

A Wi-Fi camera connects to your home Wi-Fi to transmit the video. It relies on a power cable connected to an outlet to receive power. A wire-free camera wirelessly connects to a hub which is connected to your home Wi-Fi router with an Ethernet cable. They have rechargeable batteries that last months on a single charge. We put our switches up against the best in the business — and came out on top. Cloud-managed infrastructure has been around for a number of years, but has mainly been adopted by large enterprises, dispersed organisations or managed service providers but has not been accessible for small to midsized businesses.

Adopting cloud-managed networking presents an opportunity for businesses to decrease the complexity of deploying and managing their network due to the migration of core applications to the cloud. Nuclias may be a new name in the channel but it has been around for over four years. The platform was a dedicated development by D-Link for a global telecommunication company who was looking to provide a cost-efficient managed service to its customers, most of whom were SMBs.

They tried to provide a cloud solution from one of the largest networking companies in the world but found that the solution was overly complex, over-engineered and too expensive to meet the budgets requirements of their SMB customers, resulting in lost business opportunities. Through this partnership, D-Link realised that complexity was the enemy of small IT departments. Whilst enterprise IT teams often have the in-house resources, knowledge and manpower and budgets to work their way through complex issues, smaller businesses often lacked the expertise to manage anything other than routine maintenance alongside their day-to-day tasks.

At the same time, expectations have increased significantly, even the smallest business now expects their infrastructure to have the high-performance systems and resilience of much larger organisations since not having an appropriate infrastructure not only affects their competitiveness but provides a distraction from focusing on their core business. Simplicity is at the heart of Nuclias, it takes all the functionality expected by an MSP from high-end solutions and combines it with the usability requirements of a small business.

Nuclias offers true zero-touch provisioning. Access points can be shipped from stock without the necessity of an IT professional to pre-configure them, saving significant time on deployment and boosting service level performance when damaged equipment needs rapid replacement. For businesses that have multiple sites, infrastructure management becomes a breeze since no dedicated VPNs are required to set up and manage the sites, simply take an existing profile and push to the various sites for a homogeneous deployment. We believe that Nuclias cloud networking is the answer to many of the challenges that small business and MSPs face.

Unlike existing cloud providers, customers will not pay a price premium for the privilege of moving to cloud networking. By adding cloud switching to the portfolio, D-Link is able to remove the complexity of combining a wired and wireless network. Cloud network designs are essentially the same as standard cloud networks: the same number of access points placed in the same locations, the same number of switches required to provide the bandwidth for the network traffic.

The real difference lies in how the hardware is deployed and configured. Typically an installation requires the presence of a mixture of skilled people, some to handle the manual task of installing the hardware in the appropriate locations and more technical engineers responsible for the configuration of the hardware.

In a Nuclias deployment, profiles or templates can be created before installation of the wireless and wired LAN offsite. The same engineers go onsite to deploy the hardware but the higher skilled engineers can now remain in the office and can use their skills to configure multiple sites centrally. This results in cost savings due to less travel time, fewer people on site and the ability to pre-configure and test before deployment.

As well as the ability to deploy the same configuration to another device locally to replicate any unforeseen problems. For businesses with multiple sites, Nuclias empowers you to centrally create and deploy configurations to the remote site without the necessity of having to be onsite or the added expense of business trips. Equally, the. So, why are cloud-based network management not more commonplace? The high-end cloud offerings deliver the automation, visibility and simplicity of deployment needed to improve efficiency.

For instance, does a chain of coffee shops really need the capabilities of a layer seven firewall, deep packet analysis and application control in their access point? Probably not. Do they need the constant monitoring or control that a large corporation needs? They will want to look at authentication information provided by the captive portal, but not much else. On the other end of the scale, cheaper solutions which offer fewer feature options or advertise themselves as Cloud can be a false economy.

Who really wants to go onsite with their phone to add network devices to their cloud account, but then has to switch to a tablet or laptop to configure and deploy the devices to the network? This is no different to a normal installation except you now have to pay a monthly fee per devices to maintain the right to configure and monitor the device via web browser.

As the expectations grow so do the demands and the variety of pressures applied to medium-sized business networks, network managers need a solution that is comparable in functionality to those implemented by the enterprise but at a price that is affordable. Nuclias is specifically designed to meet this requirement. Looking to the future, Nuclias will integrate Artificial Intelligence AI to bring a whole new level of consistency and control for the modern network.

Deploying the guest Wi-Fi network will become simple since AI controllers can identify the reason for the new SSID and in turn configure all the devices in the network with the correct network and VLAN settings without having to do any additional configuration. AI will further bridge the lack of skills or knowledge in businesses, enabling them to concentrate on running the business and not the infrastructure. Making configuration changes or receiving network alerts could be more human and personalised than sending an email message to a group.

Find out more: Nuclias Cloud Networking. Businesses around the world are continually battling with bottlenecks within workplace networks, but with Wave 2 Wi-Fi and 10 Gigabit networks these limitations on productivity can be removed. Fast seamless Wi-Fi connectivity, reaching every corner of the office is an expectation, which can be delivered through multiple access points; ensuring the company remains connected within itself, and its data. Unfortunately fast Wi-Fi networks are only part of the answer to the business conundrum of data availability and access.

But with the implementation of new networks follows a whole host of questions, from cost to migration, D-Link explains how to implement these solutions seamlessly and the benefits they will bring. Never fear though, mesh networking has arrived to eliminate those Wi-Fi blackspots and ensure you can still stay up too late watching boxsets. Unfortunately, walls, doors and all the other solid things in your house will weaken this signal, meaning those in larger homes or with thicker walls in particular may receive poor coverage.

In a mesh network, additional devices called nodes are placed around your house that transmit Wi-Fi signals more efficiently and eliminate areas of poor reception. Think of it like passing notes in the classroom at school. There are three types of mesh networking currently on offer that fit various scenarios. Before you go out and invest in a mesh networking setup, you should consider what you need the network to do and which option fits best. The most straightforward and affordable of the three types of mesh networking on offer, shared wireless places all connected devices and the connectivity between the various mesh network nodes on the same radio bandwidth.

This means there can be slowdowns if multiple devices are running bandwidth heavy applications like streaming HD video or downloading. Imagine a road — in a shared wireless setup all traffic is moving in the same lanes. This means that, if multiple HGVs happen to be in the lanes at the same, traffic necessarily slows before they complete their journey. If you have a realistic view of your network usage, and know it is not demanding, shared wireless is the most cost effective means of moving into mesh networking to ensure a signal where needed.

Dedicated wireless allocates radio channels solely to deal with the communication between the nodes that handle backhaul traffic. Continuing with the road analogy, this is more like having a separate bus lane. This will ensure you get coverage and top speeds, however, it comes at a premium, and mesh network devices that handle backhaul traffic like this currently come with a heftier price tag. If speed is paramount, dedicated wireless offers more reliable speeds.

With 4K HD streaming becoming more commonplace, it is perhaps a more futureproof option when compared to mesh shared wireless backhaul. Powerline adds a new route, freeing the Wi-Fi to carry more traffic. Keeping the travel theme going; powerline is more akin to adding a toll tunnel. A node is plugged into the wall next to your router, and the others where you need strong Wi-Fi signals. Powerline connections generally offer less latency than Wi-Fi. If you need a low latency connection for your gaming PC for instance, powerline will do the trick. Powerline works best in conjunction with other mesh networking technologies.

Mesh networking is the next step in home Wi-Fi, and as our internet usage only increases, it will soon be the standard for ensuring whole home coverage. Right now, in terms of the balance between affordability and performance, a dual approach of shared wireless mesh, with powerline handling the backhaul, is currently worth looking into. Smart City projects can range from individual products — such as connected public benches or smart buildings — through to fully-networked urban public transport and road systems.

This article includes the topics:. View large More details 2. With cloudhosted applications replacing many on-premises systems, business data is now being squeezed out of local storage and off-site. D-Link has been providing advanced networking equipment for more than 30 years, and though is perhaps still best known for designing and engineering devices in the West. Effectively, acting as an affordable alternative to other global switching companies. Download as PDF Improved power management, higher capacity and lower latency provided a higher performance network and made Wave 1 the gold standard it is today.

Over the last 20 years, various crisis and initiatives have come and gone that have resulted in huge consultancy and IT bills — now GDPR has become the latest golden goose which has the industry feathers ruffled. D-Link network video recorders. D-Link video management software. Building the perfect network infrastructure for video surveillance.

Our entry level cameras enable you to check on your home with live video and audio streaming — perfect for keeping an eye on the kids when they get home from school. Both routers give the very best speed and coverage around your home. So whatever your situation, we can help you find the right combination of products that will really work for you.

However, standing over your child can disturb their sleep. So the perfect solution to this is a camera that gives you the flexibility of being able to view the nursery wherever you are in the house. You may also use your PC to catch up on TV or to stream the latest movies from an online content provider. Well you can, with a number of ways of putting your HDTV at the centre of your digital home.

Plus you still have to control what you watch using the keyboard and mouse, rather than sitting back and relaxing with a remote. It also comes with a remote, complete with QWERTY keypad on the back, enabling you to sit back and stream music, photos and video from any computer or storage device on your digital home network to the attached HDTV. Need to catch up on your TV viewing? The necessary drivers and other software are pre-loaded onto the router itself, so to get started you just have to plug it in and work your way through a simple one-time setup.

It can also be used on both Windows laptops and Apple MacBooks, providing quick and easy wireless Internet access with a download speed of up to 7. It has a built-in phonebook and SMS manager, making it possible to create and edit contacts, compile groups, send, reply and forward SMS messages, all without the need for a mobile phone. Simply flick the switch located on the side of the router and it turns itself from a standalone 3G modem into a WiFi router, much like those used to share home broadband services. Think of it as a kind of private WiFi hotspot to which up to six laptops or other wireless devices can be connected to browse the Internet, send and receive email, share files and so on.

It is also backwards compatible with earlier And do so securely, thanks to the usual support for data encryption to ensure that only users with the necessary authorisation can get on. A highly portable and affordable device, the Mini 3G USB Router is small on the outside, but big on features, and it makes sharing a 3G mobile connection very simple indeed. We all know how important it is to save to disk.

To make sure documents, music, photos, movies and the like are there on our PC or laptop when we want them. But PC and laptop hard disks are far from infallible — they can and do crash, and when that happens, irreplaceable memories and expensive content is all too easily lost. Worse still, laptops can be left on trains or stolen. You and other family members can then save photos, music and other files to those shares instead of your own hard disk, or using the backup software bundled with the appliance, take regular backups of everything on your local drive.

NAS appliances really can help keep your content safe. Another plus is the ability to access your content remotely from any Internet-connected computer, even those with little or no local storage of their own, like an iPad or smartphone. A NAS gives you extra flexibility because it can be attached to your router and accessed from any PC or media player device in the house. The next step of the operation is wireless.

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With a NAS device and a Boxee Box you can access media from your computer and the web right from your living room. Therefore for anyone who travels regularly, wireless connectivity via a 3G mobile phone network, can be a simpler, more convenient alternative. These simply plug into the laptop to connect it to a 3G, mobile network. It can also be used with both pay-as-you-go and monthly contract SIMs, that support Internet access. The dongle itself is pocket-sized and very portable. Connecting to a 3G network is quick and easy, not least because all of the drivers and other software needed are already there on the dongle itself.

All you have to do is plug it into a free USB connector, and the first time you use it, follow the on-screen instructions to get it working. It can be used with Windows and Apple Mac laptops and even supports multiple languages. Once connected you can browse the Internet and send emails in exactly the same way as when connected by WiFi or the local network back at the office.

Performance will depend on where you are, the type of network and the strength of the signal. A hard drive can hold many filing cabinets worth of documents, shelves full of books, and innumerable CDs and DVDs, all in a well-organised and searchable format. As any PC technician worth their salt will tell you, the question is not whether a drive will fail, but when. Enter Network Attached Storage — your protection against the disaster of a fried hard drive. With advanced features like automated backups, remote file access, and the ability to mirror data on two drives for ultimate protection, NAS offers advanced protection and flexibility not found in standard external hard drives.

These units can be purchased with pre-installed Hard Drives, or you can install your own hard drives of virtually any brand.. So the place to start is to install a pair of identical-capacity drives — a simple, tool-free operation. RAID 1 duplicates stored data across a pair of drives, protecting your files should one drive fail. Once RAID 1 is set up, should one of the drives die, you can simply swap the bad drive for a new one. The array can automatically restore itself using the new drive. Just view the Applications tab Local Backups link , then enable a recurring schedule.

You can enable this feature through the Time Machine link in the Local Backups menu. The Mac will record the state of your system to the NAS and at any given moment restore it to that state when necessary. NAS lets you view, copy, update, and share files from any Internet-connected computer. All told, Network Attached Storage is the simplest way to keep your documents, photos, videos, music, and other files safe. NAS makes a sensible — and powerful — addition to any home network.

This will bypass the need for the Wi-Fi password. Then you can look up the default address for your router model and enter it into your browser. Every router requires a username and password before you can access the interface. Of course this varies from model to model, so you should check your model online to see your exact login information.

This will reset the settings to default, allowing you to log in with the default username and password. Beware — this will erase existing configuration data on the router. Once you are logged into your router, you will need to find the Wireless section of the configuration page. You can enter your new password into this box. Some routers will ask that you type the password again to make sure that you entered it correctly. Try to create a strong password that would be difficult if not impossible to guess. A strong password is usually at least 8 characters long.

For the most secure network, you should be using WPA2. Once you have updated your new password, click the Apply or Save button. The router will then process the change, at which point any devices currently connected would be disconnected. After your settings are changed, you can connect to your wireless network using your new password. Early adopters of home networking will know just how much was involved, not just buying cables but drilling through walls, wiring up sockets and connecting everything together. No wonder that most of us prefer the modern convenience of wireless, or powerline technologies.

Most of us will get Wi-Fi when we sign up for wireless broadband, enabling home PCs and notebooks to connect and be linked together wirelessly, to both surf the Web and share photos, music and other content. Modern smartphones can also connect using Wi-Fi, as can tablets like the iPad, and games consoles, making it a very convenient and popular solution, enabling these devices to be used from any room in the house.

Wireless routers, such as those from D-Link, provide a very stable connection able to reach into every part of the home. They even allow you share USB printers and hard drives. Wi-Fi is brilliant for most households, but there are still some situations where it might not give you the connection that you need throughout your entire home. In houses with lots of thick stone walls for example, or in shared buildings with lots of interference.

PowerLine involves the use of small adapters — little bigger than a normal plug — that fit into ordinary wall-mounted power sockets. Or if you want to do it all without the hassle of cables, a PowerLine Wireless Extender is a perfect solution. Moreover they incorporate the fastest PowerLine technology to support even the busiest of households that are streaming, gaming and surfing simultaneously. In fact Wi-Fi and PowerLine go hand in hand, they are complementary technologies that can be used together to give you the connection you need around your Digital Home.

But how do you access and share your content on the go from your Smartphone or tablet? A problem shared … Fortunately you can resolve these issues with a handy little device called the Mobile Cloud Companion DIR , designed expressly to address the need for connectivity on the go. Little bigger than a mobile phone charger, just plug the D-Link Mobile Cloud Companion into a wall socket to power it on. A small switch on the top then lets you choose which of three modes to employ in order to get it working.

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Attach your Mobile Cloud Companion to your router and you can give any WiFi enabled computer, tablet or Smartphone Internet access via the integrated WiFi access point. You can give access to multiple people to share files. Access to shared storage via a browser comes as standard, but add a little bit of software and it gets even easier.

Highly portable, it lets you create a personal Cloud that can be carried around in your pocket. A media storage device is fast becoming a popular addition to many digital home network, as it provides a convenient way to share your favourite music, photos and other digital data without having to use memory sticks or move files between different devices. They can also be used to backup data stored on home PCs and laptops, to ensure that all the media you treasure is kept safe.

It can take any Hard Drive of up to 3TB in size. In addition to being super-simple to set up, PowerLine networking devices can help you solve a variety of networking problems you might encounter using traditional wired and wireless networking standards. From home entertainment equipment in the living room to the home office in your basement, PowerLine lets a variety of devices communicate with the Internet and one another.

The technology now comes in two speeds. Traditional PowerLine transfers data at Mbps megabits per second. Lately, PowerLine devices have hit the market that operate at Mbps. This higher speed lets you stream movies, games, and music simultaneously and transfer more, and larger, files without bogging down performance. Moreover, it gives your network a high-performance backbone for high-bandwidth devices. PowerLine extends your network to devices outside the range of an existing Wi-Fi signal or Ethernet wiring.

Now you can connect another device to the other adapter and plug it into another electrical outlet anywhere in the building. Your network can reach devices throughout the building. If you want to connect more devices, simply add more PowerLine adapters in your network. Wireless, wired and PowerLine networking can work together to solve a variety of problems. The unit sends and receives a strong Wireless N signal — the latest, most robust version of Wi-Fi. Its rear panel offers four Ethernet ports. This way, you can solve a variety of network problems without having to assemble a hodgepodge of separate devices.

Of course, you can still add adapters or extenders depending on the areas you need to cover and the devices you need to connect. PowerLine is a powerful, flexible, cost-effective, and above all easy solution for all kinds of networking challenges. PowerLine adapters and extenders afford network access anywhere with an electrical outlet, and PowerLine routers accommodate all sorts of network products.

Each device is unique, but together they let you build the network you need, wherever you need it. Poste Italiane is the national post and deliveryservice in Italy, numbering more than 12, post offices. In order to bring the service into the digital age, Fastweb was contracted to build a system connecting all the post offices to the central network.

Thanks to the infrastructure Fastweb constructed using D-Link DES switches, all Poste Italiane services are now integrated, both at post office level and at a global network level. For a nationwide organisation like Poste Italiane, entrusted with a lot of personal information, security is paramount.

This is aided by the facility to keep user groups and permissions organised and tidy. List of products: More than 3. Lottomatica has been the national lottery and game brand for years, with many popular games and many betting stores in Italy. The SPM resource can only be held by a live host. Resources are tracked on disk in the leases logical volume.

A resource is said to be taken when its representation on disk has been updated with the unique identifier of the process that has taken it. The Sanlock process on each host only needs to check the resources once to see that they are taken.


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  • After an initial check, Sanlock can monitor the lockspaces until timestamp of the host with a locked resource becomes stale. Sanlock monitors the applications that use resources. Sanlock updates the resource to show that it is no longer taken. If the sigkill is unsuccessful, Sanlock depends on the watchdog daemon to reboot the host.

    Every time VDSM on the host renews its hostid and writes a timestamp to the lockspace, the watchdog daemon receives a pet. When VDSM is unable to do so, the watchdog daemon is no longer being petted. After the watchdog daemon has not received a pet for a given amount of time, it reboots the host. This final level of escalation, if reached, guarantees that the SPM resource is released, and can be taken by another host.

    The Red Hat Virtualization Manager provides provisioning policies to optimize storage usage within the virtualization environment. A thin provisioning policy allows you to over-commit storage resources, provisioning storage based on the actual storage usage of your virtualization environment. Storage over-commitment is the allocation of more storage to virtual machines than is physically available in the storage pool. Generally, virtual machines use less storage than what has been allocated to them.

    Thin provisioning allows a virtual machine to operate as if the storage defined for it has been completely allocated, when in fact only a fraction of the storage has been allocated. While the Red Hat Virtualization Manager provides its own thin provisioning function, you should use the thin provisioning functionality of your storage back-end if it provides one. To support storage over-commitment, VDSM defines a threshold which compares logical storage allocation with actual storage usage.

    This threshold is used to make sure that the data written to a disk image is smaller than the logical volume that backs the disk image. QEMU identifies the highest offset written to in a logical volume, which indicates the point of greatest storage use. So long as VDSM continues to indicate that the highest offset remains below the threshold, the Red Hat Virtualization Manager knows that the logical volume in question has sufficient storage to continue operations.

    This process can be repeated as long as the data storage domain for the data center has available space. When the data storage domain runs out of available free space, you must manually add storage capacity to expand it. The Red Hat Virtualization Manager uses thin provisioning to overcommit the storage available in a storage pool, and allocates more storage than is physically available.

    Virtual machines write data as they operate. A virtual machine with a thinly-provisioned disk image will eventually write more data than the logical volume backing its disk image can hold. When this happens, logical volume extension is used to provide additional storage and facilitate the continued operations for the virtual machine. When using QCOW2 formatted storage, Red Hat Virtualization relies on the host system process qemu-kvm to map storage blocks on disk to logical blocks in a sequential manner.

    This allows, for example, the definition of a logical GB disk backed by a 1 GB logical volume. The host can continue operations. The storage extension communication is done via a storage mailbox. The storage mailbox is a dedicated logical volume on the data storage domain. A host that needs the SPM to extend a logical volume writes a message in an area designated to that particular host in the storage mailbox. The SPM periodically reads the incoming mail, performs requested logical volume extensions, and writes a reply in the outgoing mail. After sending the request, a host monitors its incoming mail for responses every two seconds.

    When the host receives a successful reply to its logical volume extension request, it refreshes the logical volume map in device mapper to recognize the newly allocated storage. When the physical storage available to a storage pool is nearly exhausted, multiple images can run out of usable storage with no means to replenish their resources. A storage pool that exhausts its storage causes QEMU to return an enospc error , which indicates that the device no longer has any storage available. At this point, running virtual machines are automatically paused and manual intervention is required to add a new LUN to the volume group.

    When a new LUN is added to the volume group, the Storage Pool Manager automatically distributes the additional storage to logical volumes that need it. The automatic allocation of additional resources allows the relevant virtual machines to automatically continue operations uninterrupted or resume operations if stopped.

    Creating a block storage domain results in files with the same names as the seven LVs shown below, and initially should take less capacity. Migrating a virtual disk requires enough free space to be available on the target storage domain. The storage types in the move process affect the visible capacity. For example, if you move a preallocated disk from block storage to file storage, the resulting free space may be considerably smaller than the initial free space.

    Live migrating a virtual disk to another storage domain also creates a snapshot, which is automatically merged after the migration is complete. Creating a snapshot of a virtual machine can affect the storage domain capacity. Red Hat Virtualization networking can be discussed in terms of basic networking, networking within a cluster, and host networking configurations. Basic networking terms cover the basic hardware and software elements that facilitate networking. Networking within a cluster includes network interactions among cluster level objects such as hosts, logical networks and virtual machines.

    Host networking configurations covers supported configurations for networking within a host. A well designed and built network ensures, for example, that high bandwidth tasks receive adequate bandwidth, that user interactions are not crippled by latency, and virtual machines can be successfully migrated within a migration domain. A poorly built network can cause, for example, unacceptable latency, and migration and cloning failures resulting from network flooding. The remaining configuration tasks are managed by Cisco ACI.

    Red Hat Virtualization provides networking functionality between virtual machines, virtualization hosts, and wider networks using:. Bonds and VLANs are optionally implemented to enhance security, fault tolerance, and network capacity. The NIC operates on both the physical and data link layers of the machine and allows network connectivity. A virtual NIC acts as a physical network interface for a virtual machine.

    A Bridge is a software device that uses packet forwarding in a packet-switched network.

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    Bridging allows multiple network interface devices to share the connectivity of one NIC and appear on a network as separate physical devices. Once the target address is determined, the bridge adds the location to a table for future reference. This allows a host to redirect network traffic to virtual machine associated VNICs that are members of a bridge. In Red Hat Virtualization a logical network is implemented using a bridge. It is the bridge rather than the physical interface on a host that receives an IP address.

    The IP address associated with the bridge is not required to be within the same subnet as the virtual machines that use the bridge for connectivity. If the bridge is assigned an IP address on the same subnet as the virtual machines that use it, the host is addressable within the logical network by virtual machines. As a rule it is not recommended to run network exposed services on a virtualization host. Guests are connected to a logical network by their VNICs, and the host is connected to remote elements of the logical network using its NIC. Bridges can connect to objects outside the host, but such a connection is not mandatory.

    Custom properties can be defined for both the bridge and the Ethernet connection. VDSM passes the network definition and custom properties to the setup network hook script. A bond is an aggregation of multiple network interface cards into a single software-defined device. Because bonded network interfaces combine the transmission capability of the network interface cards included in the bond to act as a single network interface, they can provide greater transmission speed than that of a single network interface card.

    Also, because all network interface cards in the bond must fail for the bond itself to fail, bonding provides increased fault tolerance. However, one limitation is that the network interface cards that form a bonded network interface must be of the same make and model to ensure that all network interface cards in the bond support the same options and modes. Modes 1, 2, 3 and 4 support both virtual machine bridged and non-virtual machine bridgeless network types. Modes 0, 5 and 6 support non-virtual machine bridgeless networks only. Red Hat Virtualization uses Mode 4 by default, but supports the following common bonding modes:.

    Switch configurations vary per the requirements of your hardware. Refer to the deployment and networking configuration guides for your operating system. The process for assigning MAC addresses and associating those MAC addresses with PCI addresses is slightly different when creating virtual machines based on templates or snapshots:.

    Once created, vNICs are added to a network bridge device. The network bridge devices are how virtual machines are connected to virtual machine logical networks. Running the ip addr show command on a virtualization host shows all of the vNICs that are associated with virtual machines on that host.

    Also visible are any network bridges that have been created to back logical networks, and any NICs used by the host. The console output from the command shows several devices: one loop back device lo , one Ethernet device eth0 , one wireless device wlan0 , one VDSM dummy device ;vdsmdummy; , five bond devices bond0 , bond4 , bond1 , bond2 , bond3 , and one network bridge ovirtmgmt.

    Bridge membership can be displayed using the brctl show command:. The console output from the brctl show command shows that the virtio vNICs are members of the ovirtmgmt bridge. All of the virtual machines that the vNICs are associated with are connected to the ovirtmgmt logical network. The eth0 NIC is also a member of the ovirtmgmt bridge. The eth0 device is cabled to a switch that provides connectivity beyond the host.

    Network packets can be "tagged" into a numbered VLAN. A VLAN is a security feature used to completely isolate network traffic at the switch level. VLANs are completely separate and mutually exclusive. At the switch level, ports are assigned a VLAN designation. A VLAN can extend across multiple switches. VLAN tagged network traffic on a switch is completely undetectable except by machines connected to a port designated with the correct VLAN. A given port can be tagged into multiple VLANs, which allows traffic from multiple VLANs to be sent to a single port, to be deciphered using software on the machine that receives the traffic.

    Network labels can be used to greatly simplify several administrative tasks associated with creating and administering logical networks and associating those logical networks with physical host network interfaces and bonds. A network label is a plain text, human readable label that can be attached to a logical network or a physical host network interface. There is no strict limit on the length of label, but you must use a combination of lowercase and uppercase letters, underscores and hyphens; no spaces or special characters are allowed. Attaching a label to a logical network or physical host network interface creates an association with other logical networks or physical host network interfaces to which the same label has been attached, as follows:.

    When a labeled logical network is assigned to act as a display network or migration network, that logical network is then configured on the physical host network interface using DHCP so that the logical network can be assigned an IP address. Setting a label on a role network for instance, "a migration network" or "a display network" causes a mass deployment of that network on all hosts. Such mass additions of networks are achieved through the use of DHCP. This method of mass deployment was chosen over a method of typing in static addresses, because of the unscalable nature of the task of typing in many static IP addresses.

    A data center is a logical grouping of multiple clusters and each cluster is a logical group of multiple hosts. Hosts in a cluster all have access to the same storage domains. Hosts in a cluster also have logical networks applied at the cluster level. For a virtual machine logical network to become operational for use with virtual machines, the network must be defined and implemented for each host in the cluster using the Red Hat Virtualization Manager.

    Other logical network types can be implemented on only the hosts that use them. Multi-host network configuration automatically applies any updated network settings to all of the hosts within the data center to which the network is assigned. Logical networking allows the Red Hat Virtualization environment to separate network traffic by type. For example, the ovirtmgmt network is created by default during the installation of Red Hat Virtualization to be used for management communication between the Manager and hosts. A typical use for logical networks is to group network traffic with similar requirements and usage together.

    In many cases, a storage network and a display network are created by an administrator to isolate traffic of each respective type for optimization and troubleshooting. Logical networks are defined at the data center level, and added to a host. For a required logical network to be operational, it must be implemented for every host in a given cluster. Each virtual machine logical network in a Red Hat Virtualization environment is backed by a network bridge device on a host. So when a new virtual machine logical network is defined for a cluster, a matching bridge device must be created on each host in the cluster before the logical network can become operational to be used by virtual machines.

    Red Hat Virtualization Manager automatically creates required bridges for virtual machine logical networks. The bridge device created by the Red Hat Virtualization Manager to back a virtual machine logical network is associated with a host network interface. If the host network interface that is part of a bridge has network connectivity, then any network interfaces that are subsequently included in the bridge share the network connectivity of the bridge.

    When virtual machines are created and placed on a particular logical network, their virtual network cards are included in the bridge for that logical network. Those virtual machines can then communicate with each other and with other objects that are connected to the bridge. Logical networks not used for virtual machine network traffic are associated with host network interfaces directly.

    There are two hosts called Red and White in a cluster called Pink in a data center called Purple. Both Red and White have been using the default logical network, ovirtmgmt for all networking functions. The system administrator responsible for Pink decides to isolate network testing for a web server by placing the web server and some client virtual machines on a separate logical network. First, she defines the logical network for the Purple data center.

    She then applies it to the Pink cluster. Logical networks must be implemented on a host in maintenance mode. So, the administrator first migrates all running virtual machines to Red, and puts White in maintenance mode. Then she edits the Network associated with the physical network interface that will be included in the bridge. Next she activates White, migrates all of the running virtual machines off of Red, and repeats the process for Red.

    A required network is a logical network that must be available to all hosts in a cluster. This is beneficial if you have virtual machines running mission critical workloads. An optional network is a logical network that has not been explicitly declared as Required.

    Optional networks can be implemented on only the hosts that use them. The presence or absence of optional networks does not affect the Operational status of a host. When a non-required network becomes non-operational, the virtual machines running on the network are not migrated to another host. Note that when a logical network is created and added to clusters, the Required box is checked by default. Virtual machine networks called a VM network in the user interface are logical networks designated to carry only virtual machine network traffic. Virtual machine networks can be required or optional.

    Virtual machines that uses an optional virtual machine network will only start on hosts with that network. In Red Hat Virtualization, a virtual machine has its NIC put on a logical network at the time that the virtual machine is created. From that point, the virtual machine is able to communicate with any other destination on the same network. For example, if a virtual machine is on the ovirtmgmt logical network, its VNIC is added as a member of the ovirtmgmt bridge of the host on which that virtual machine runs.

    Port mirroring copies layer 3 network traffic on a given logical network and host to a virtual interface on a virtual machine. This virtual machine can be used for network debugging and tuning, intrusion detection, and monitoring the behavior of other virtual machines on the same host and logical network. The only traffic copied is internal to one logical network on one host.

    There is no increase on traffic on the network external to the host; however a virtual machine with port mirroring enabled uses more host CPU and RAM than other virtual machines. Port mirroring is enabled or disabled in the vNIC profiles of logical networks, and has the following limitations:. Given the above limitations, it is recommended that you enable port mirroring on an additional, dedicated vNIC profile.

    Bridge and NIC configuration. An example of this configuration is the automatic creation of the ovirtmgmt network when installing Red Hat Virtualization Manager. Dual stack is not supported. A bond creates a logical link that combines the two or more physical Ethernet links. The resultant benefits include NIC fault tolerance and potential bandwidth extension, depending on the bonding mode. Each bridge, in turn, connects to multiple virtual machines. Each VLAN connects to an individual bridge and each bridge connects to one or more guests.

    The Red Hat Virtualization environment is most flexible and resilient when power management and fencing have been configured. Power management allows the Red Hat Virtualization Manager to control host power cycle operations, most importantly to reboot hosts on which problems have been detected. Fencing is used to isolate problem hosts from a functional Red Hat Virtualization environment by rebooting them, in order to prevent performance degradation.

    Fenced hosts can then be returned to responsive status through administrator action and be reintegrated into the environment. Power management and fencing make use of special dedicated hardware in order to restart hosts independently of host operating systems. In the context of Red Hat Virtualization, a power management device and a fencing device are the same thing. The Red Hat Virtualization Manager does not communicate directly with fence agents.

    Instead, the Manager uses a proxy to send power management commands to a host power management device. The Manager uses VDSM to execute power management device actions, so another host in the environment is used as a fencing proxy. A viable fencing proxy host has a status of either UP or Maintenance. The Red Hat Virtualization Manager is capable of rebooting hosts that have entered a non-operational or non-responsive state, as well as preparing to power off under-utilized hosts to save power.

    This functionality depends on a properly configured power management device. The Red Hat Virtualization environment supports the following power management devices:. APC 5. In order to communicate with the listed power management devices, the Red Hat Virtualization Manager makes use of fence agents. The Red Hat Virtualization Manager allows administrators to configure a fence agent for the power management device in their environment with parameters the device will accept and respond to.

    Basic configuration options can be configured using the graphical user interface. Special configuration options can also be entered, and are passed un-parsed to the fence device. Special configuration options are specific to a given fence device, while basic configuration options are for functionalities provided by all supported power management devices. The basic functionalities provided by all power management devices are:. Best practice is to test the power management configuration once when initially configuring it, and occasionally after that to ensure continued functionality.

    Resilience is provided by properly configured power management devices in all of the hosts in an environment. Fencing agents allow the Red Hat Virtualization Manager to communicate with host power management devices to bypass the operating system on a problem host, and isolate the host from the rest of its environment by rebooting it. The Manager can then reassign the SPM role, if it was held by the problem host, and safely restart any highly available virtual machines on other hosts.

    In the context of the Red Hat Virtualization environment, fencing is a host reboot initiated by the Manager using a fence agent and performed by a power management device. Fencing allows a cluster to react to unexpected host failures as well as enforce power saving, load balancing, and virtual machine availability policies. Because the host with the SPM role is the only host that is able to write data domain structure metadata, a non-responsive, un-fenced SPM host causes its environment to lose the ability to create and destroy virtual disks, take snapshots, extend logical volumes, and all other actions that require changes to data domain structure metadata.

    When a host becomes non-responsive, all of the virtual machines that are currently running on that host can also become non-responsive. However, the non-responsive host retains the lock on the virtual machine hard disk images for virtual machines it is running. Attempting to start a virtual machine on a second host and assign the second host write privileges for the virtual machine hard disk image can cause data corruption. Fencing allows the Red Hat Virtualization Manager to assume that the lock on a virtual machine hard disk image has been released; the Manager can use a fence agent to confirm that the problem host has been rebooted.

    When this confirmation is received, the Red Hat Virtualization Manager can start a virtual machine from the problem host on another host without risking data corruption. Fencing is the basis for highly-available virtual machines. A virtual machine that has been marked highly-available can not be safely started on an alternate host without the certainty that doing so will not cause data corruption. When a host becomes non-responsive, the Red Hat Virtualization Manager allows a grace period of thirty 30 seconds to pass before any action is taken, to allow the host to recover from any temporary errors.

    If the host has not become responsive by the time the grace period has passed, the Manager automatically begins to mitigate any negative impact from the non-responsive host. The Manager uses the fencing agent for the power management card on the host to stop the host, confirm it has stopped, start the host, and confirm that the host has been started.

    When the host finishes booting, it attempts to rejoin the cluster that it was a part of before it was fenced. If the issue that caused the host to become non-responsive has been resolved by the reboot, then the host is automatically set to Up status and is once again capable of starting and hosting virtual machines. Hosts can sometimes become non-responsive due to an unexpected problem, and though VDSM is unable to respond to requests, the virtual machines that depend upon VDSM remain alive and accessible.

    If the Manager fails to restart VDSM via SSH, the responsibility for fencing falls to the external fencing agent if an external fencing agent has been configured. Soft-fencing over SSH works as follows. Fencing must be configured and enabled on the host, and a valid proxy host a second host, in an UP state, in the data center must exist. When the connection between the Manager and the host times out, the following happens:.

    Soft-fencing over SSH can be executed on hosts that have no power management configured. This is distinct from "fencing": fencing can be executed only on hosts that have power management configured. Single agents are treated as primary agents. The secondary agent is valid when there are two fencing agents, for example for dual-power hosts in which each power switch has two agents connected to the same power switch. Agents can be of the same or different types. Having multiple fencing agents on a host increases the reliability of the fencing procedure.

    For example, when the sole fencing agent on a host fails, the host will remain in a non-operational state until it is manually rebooted. The virtual machines previously running on the host will be suspended, and only fail over to another host in the cluster after the original host is manually fenced.

    With multiple agents, if the first agent fails, the next agent can be called. When two fencing agents are defined on a host, they can be configured to use a concurrent or sequential flow:. Individual hosts have finite hardware resources, and are susceptible to failure. To mitigate against failure and resource exhaustion, hosts are grouped into clusters, which are essentially a grouping of shared resources.

    A Red Hat Virtualization environment responds to changes in demand for host resources using load balancing policy, scheduling, and migration. The Manager is able to ensure that no single host in a cluster is responsible for all of the virtual machines in that cluster. Conversely, the Manager is able to recognize an underutilized host, and migrate all virtual machines off of it, allowing an administrator to shut down that host to save power. The Manager responds to changes in available resources by using the load balancing policy for a cluster to schedule the migration of virtual machines from one host in a cluster to another.

    The relationship between load balancing policy, scheduling, and virtual machine migration are discussed in the following sections. Load balancing policy is set for a cluster, which includes one or more hosts that may each have different hardware parameters and available memory. The Red Hat Virtualization Manager uses a load balancing policy to determine which host in a cluster to start a virtual machine on.

    Load balancing policy also allows the Manager determine when to move virtual machines from over-utilized hosts to under-utilized hosts. The load balancing process runs once every minute for each cluster in a data center. It determines which hosts are over-utilized, which are hosts under-utilized, and which are valid targets for virtual machine migration. The determination is made based on the load balancing policy set by an administrator for a given cluster. A virtual machine evenly distributed load balancing policy distributes virtual machines evenly between hosts based on a count of the virtual machines.

    The high virtual machine count is the maximum number of virtual machines that can run on each host, beyond which qualifies as overloading the host. The maximum inclusive difference in virtual machine count between the most highly-utilized host and the least-utilized host is also set by an administrator.

    The cluster is balanced when every host in the cluster has a virtual machine count that falls inside this migration threshold. The administrator also sets the number of slots for virtual machines to be reserved on SPM hosts. The SPM host will have a lower load than other hosts, so this variable defines how many fewer virtual machines than other hosts it can run. If any host is running more virtual machines than the high virtual machine count and at least one host has a virtual machine count that falls outside of the migration threshold, virtual machines are migrated one by one to the host in the cluster that has the lowest CPU utilization.

    One virtual machine is migrated at a time until every host in the cluster has a virtual machine count that falls within the migration threshold. An evenly distributed load balancing policy selects the host for a new virtual machine according to lowest CPU load or highest available memory. The evenly distributed policy allows an administrator to set these levels for running virtual machines. If a host has reached the defined maximum CPU load or minimum available memory and the host stays there for more than the set time, virtual machines on that host are migrated one by one to the host in the cluster that has the lowest CPU or highest available memory depending on which parameter is being utilized.

    Host resources are checked once per minute, and one virtual machine is migrated at a time until the host CPU load is below the defined limit or the host available memory is above the defined limit. A power saving load balancing policy selects the host for a new virtual machine according to lowest CPU or highest available memory.

    The power saving parameters also define the minimum CPU load and maximum available memory allowed for hosts in a cluster for a set amount of time before the continued operation of a host is considered an inefficient use of electricity. If a host has reached the maximum CPU load or minimum available memory and stays there for more than the set time, the virtual machines on that host are migrated one by one to the host that has the lowest CPU or highest available memory depending on which parameter is being utilized.

    When an under-utilized host is cleared of its remaining virtual machines, the Manager will automatically power down the host machine, and restart it again when load balancing requires or there are not enough free hosts in the cluster. If no load balancing policy is selected, virtual machines are started on the host within a cluster with the lowest CPU utilization and available memory.

    This approach is the least dynamic, as the only host selection point is when a new virtual machine is started. Virtual machines are not automatically migrated to reflect increased demand on a host. An administrator must decide which host is an appropriate migration target for a given virtual machine. Virtual machines can also be associated with a particular host using pinning. Pinning prevents a virtual machine from being automatically migrated to other hosts.

    For environments where resources are highly consumed, manual migration is the best approach. A cluster maintenance scheduling policy limits activity in a cluster during maintenance tasks. When a cluster maintenance policy is set:. A highly available HA virtual machine reservation policy enables the Red Hat Virtualization Manager to monitor cluster capacity for highly available virtual machines. The Manager has the capability to flag individual virtual machines for High Availability, meaning that in the event of a host failure, these virtual machines will be rebooted on an alternative host.

    This policy balances highly available virtual machines across the hosts in a cluster. If any host in the cluster fails, the remaining hosts can support the migrating load of highly available virtual machines without affecting cluster performance. When highly available virtual machine reservation is enabled, the Manager ensures that appropriate capacity exists within a cluster for HA virtual machines to migrate in the event that their existing host fails unexpectedly. In Red Hat Virtualization, scheduling refers to the way the Red Hat Virtualization Manager selects a host in a cluster as the target for a new or migrated virtual machine.

    For a host to be eligible to start a virtual machine or accept a migrated virtual machine from another host, it must have enough free memory and CPUs to support the requirements of the virtual machine being started on or migrated to it. A virtual machine will not start on a host with an overloaded CPU. If multiple hosts are eligible targets, one will be selected based on the load balancing policy for the cluster.

    The Storage Pool Manager SPM status of a given host also affects eligibility as a target for starting virtual machines or virtual machine migration. A non-SPM host is a preferred target host, for instance, the first virtual machine started in a cluster will not run on the SPM host if the SPM role is held by a host in that cluster. The Red Hat Virtualization Manager uses migration to enforce load balancing policies for a cluster. Virtual machine migration takes place according to the load balancing policy for a cluster and current demands on hosts within a cluster.

    Migration can also be configured to automatically occur when a host is fenced or moved to maintenance mode. If there are more than one virtual machines with the same CPU usage, the one that will be migrated first is the first virtual machine returned by the database query run by the Red Hat Virtualization Manager to determine virtual machine CPU usage. The Red Hat Virtualization platform relies on directory services for user authentication and authorization.

    Virtual machines within the Red Hat Virtualization environment can use the same directory services to provide authentication and authorization, however they must be configured to do so. The Red Hat Virtualization Manager interfaces with the directory server for:. Authentication is the verification and identification of a party who generated some data, and of the integrity of the generated data. A principal is the party whose identity is verified. In the case of Red Hat Virtualization, the Manager is the verifier and a user is a principal.

    Data integrity is the assurance that the data received is the same as the data generated by the principal. Confidentiality and authorization are closely related to authentication. Confidentiality protects data from disclosure to those not intended to receive it. Strong authentication methods can optionally provide confidentiality. Authorization determines whether a principal is allowed to perform an operation.

    Red Hat Virtualization uses directory services to associate users with roles and provide authorization accordingly. Authorization is usually performed after the principal has been authenticated, and may be based on information local or remote to the verifier. During installation, a local, internal domain is automatically configured for administration of the Red Hat Virtualization environment. After the installation is complete, more domains can be added. The Red Hat Virtualization Manager creates a limited, internal administration domain during installation.

    The internal domain is also different from an external domain because the internal domain will only have one user: the admin internal user. Taking this approach to initial authentication allows Red Hat Virtualization to be evaluated without requiring a complete, functional directory server, and ensures an administrative account is available to troubleshoot any issues with external directory services. The admin internal user is for the initial configuration of an environment. This includes installing and accepting hosts, adding external AD or IdM authentication domains, and delegating permissions to users from external domains.

    In the context of Red Hat Virtualization, remote authentication refers to authentication that is handled by a remote service, not the Red Hat Virtualization Manager. This requires that the Manager be provided with credentials for an account from the RHDS, AD, or IdM directory server for the domain with sufficient privileges to join a system to the domain. After domains have been added, domain users can be authenticated by the Red Hat Virtualization Manager against the directory server using a password.

    The Red Hat Virtualization environment provides administrators with tools to simplify the provisioning of virtual machines to users. These are templates and pools. A template is a shortcut that allows an administrator to quickly create a new virtual machine based on an existing, pre-configured virtual machine, bypassing operating system installation and configuration.

    This is especially helpful for virtual machines that will be used like appliances, for example web server virtual machines. If an organization uses many instances of a particular web server, an administrator can create a virtual machine that will be used as a template, installing an operating system, the web server, any supporting packages, and applying unique configuration changes. The administrator can then create a template based on the working virtual machine that will be used to create new, identical virtual machines as they are required.

    Virtual machine pools are groups of virtual machines based on a given template that can be rapidly provisioned to users. Permission to use virtual machines in a pool is granted at the pool level; a user who is granted permission to use the pool will be assigned any virtual machine from the pool. Inherent in a virtual machine pool is the transitory nature of the virtual machines within it. Because users are assigned virtual machines without regard for which virtual machine in the pool they have used in the past, pools are not suited for purposes which require data persistence.

    Virtual machine pools are best suited for scenarios where either user data is stored in a central location and the virtual machine is a means to accessing and using that data, or data persistence is not important. The creation of a pool results in the creation of the virtual machines that populate the pool, in a stopped state. These are then started on user request. To create a template, an administrator creates and customizes a virtual machine. Desired packages are installed, customized configurations are applied, the virtual machine is prepared for its intended purpose in order to minimize the changes that must be made to it after deployment.

    An optional but recommended step before creating a template from a virtual machine is generalization. Generalization is used to remove details like system user names, passwords, and timezone information that will change upon deployment. Generalization does not affect customized configurations. Red Hat Enterprise Linux guests are generalized using sys-unconfig.

    Windows guests are generalized using sys-prep. When the virtual machine that provides the basis for a template is satisfactorily configured, generalized if desired, and stopped, an administrator can create a template from the virtual machine. Creating a template from a virtual machine causes a read-only copy of the specially configured virtual disk to be created. The read-only image forms the backing image for all subsequently created virtual machines that are based on that template.

    In other words, a template is essentially a customized read-only virtual disk with an associated virtual hardware configuration. The hardware can be changed in virtual machines created from a template, for instance, provisioning two gigabytes of RAM for a virtual machine created from a template that has one gigabyte of RAM.

    The template virtual disk, however, cannot be changed as doing so would result in changes for all virtual machines based on the template. When a template has been created, it can be used as the basis for multiple virtual machines. Although, the system can be configured alternately for multiple records per trunk group. The ATM trunk circuit table is accessed from the trunk group table or an external call process, and it points to the trunk group table.

    The trunk group table contains information that is required to build trunk groups out of different trunk members identified in the TDM and ATM trunk circuit tables and The trunk group table contains information related to the originating and terminating trunk groups. The trunk group table typically points to the carrier table Although, the trunk group table may point to the exception table , the OLI table , the ANI table , the called number screening table , the called number table , the routing table , the day of year table , the day of week table , the time of day table , and the treatment table see FIG.

    For default processing of an IAM of an outgoing call in the forward direction, when the call process determines call setup and routing parameters for user communications on the originating portion, the trunk group table is the next table after the TDM and ATM trunk circuit tables and , and the trunk group table points to the carrier table For default processing of an IAM of an outgoing call in the forward direction, when the call process determines call setup and routing parameters for user communications on the terminating portion, the trunk group table is the next table after the routing table , and the trunk group table points to the TDM or ATM trunk circuit table or For default processing of an ACM or an ANM of an outgoing call in the originating direction, when the call process determines parameters for signaling, the trunk group table is the next table after the TDM or ATM trunk circuit table or , and the trunk group table points to the message mapping table It will be appreciated that this is the default method, and, as explained herein, other implementations of table processing occur.

    The carrier table contains information that allows calls to be screened based, at least in part, on the carrier information parameter and the carrier selection parameter. The carrier table typically points to the exception table Although, the carrier table may point to the OLI table , the ANI table , the called number screening table , the called number table , the routing table , the day of year table , the day of week table , the time of day table , the treatment table see FIG.

    The exception table is used to identify various exception conditions related to the call that may influence the routing or handling of the call. The exception table contains information that allows calls to be screened based, at least in part, on the called party number and the calling party's category. The exception table typically points to the OLI table Although, the exception table can point to the ANI table , the called number screening table , the called number table , the routing table , the day of year table , the day of week table , the time of day table , the call rate table, the percent control table, the treatment table see FIG.

    The OLI table contains information that allows calls to be screened based, at least in part, on originating line information in an IAM. Although, the OLI table can point to the called number screening table , the called number table , the routing table , the day of year table , the day of week table , the time of day table , and the treatment table see FIG. The ANI table is used to identify any special characteristics related to the caller's number, which is commonly known as automatic number identification.

    ANI specific requirements such as queuing, echo cancellation, time zone, and treatments can be established. The ANI table typically points to the called number screening table Although, the ANI table can point to the called number table , the routing table , the day of year table , the day of week table , the time of day table , and the treatment table see FIG.

    The called number screening table is used to screen called numbers. The called number screening table determines the disposition of the called number and the nature of the called number. It is used, for example, with the local number portability LNP feature. The called number screening table can invoke a TCAP. The called number screening table typically points to the called number table Although, the called number screening table can point to the routing table , the treatment table, the call rate table, the percent table see FIG.

    The called number table is used to identify routing requirements based on, for example, the called number. This will be the case for standard calls. The called number table typically points to the routing table In addition, the called number table can be configured to alternately point to the day of year table The called number table can also point to the treatment table see FIG. The routing table contains information relating to the routing of a call for various connections. The routing table typically points to the treatment table see FIG.

    Although, the routing table also can point to the trunk group table and the database services table see FIG. For default processing of an IAM of an outgoing call in the forward direction, when the call process determines call setup and routing parameters for user communications, the routing table is the next table after the called number table , and the routing table points to the trunk group table For default processing of an IAM of an outgoing call in the forward direction, when the call process determines parameters for signaling, the routing table is the next table after the called number table , and the routing table points to the message mapping table The trunk group COS table contains information that allows calls to be routed differently based on the class of service assigned to the originating trunk group and to the terminating trunk group.

    When the trunk group COS table is used in processing, after the routing table and the trunk group table are processed, the trunk group table points to the trunk group COS table. The trunk group COS table points back to the routing table for further processing. Processing then continues with the routing table which points to the trunk group table , and the trunk group table which points to the TDM or ATM trunk circuit table or The message mapping table is used to provide instructions for the formatting of signaling messages from the call processor.

    It typically can be accessed by the routing table or the trunk group table and typically determines the format of the outgoing messages leaving the call processor. The day of year table contains information that allows calls to be routed differently based on the day of the year. The day of year table typically points to the routing table and references the time zone table for information. The day of year table also can point to the called number screening table , the called number table , the routing table , the day of week table , the time of day table , and the treatment table see FIG.

    The day of week table contains information that allows calls to be routed differently based on the day of the week. The day of week table typically points to the routing table and references the time zone table for information. The day of week table also can point to the called number screening table , the called number table , the time of day table , and the treatment table see FIG. The time of day table contains information that allows calls to be routed differently based on the time of the day. The time of day table typically points to the routing table and references the time zone table for information.

    The time of day table also can point to the called number screening table , the called number table , and the treatment table see FIG. The time zone table contains information that allows call processing to determine if the time associated with the call processing should be offset based on the time zone or daylight savings time.

    The time zone table is referenced by, and provides information to, the day of year table , the day of week table , and the time of day table The tables from FIG. However, for clarity, the table's pointers have been omitted, and some tables have not been duplicated in FIG. The outgoing release table contains information that allows call processing to determine how an outgoing release message is to be formatted. The outgoing release table typically points to the treatment table The treatment table identifies various special actions to be taken in the course of call processing.

    For example, based on the incoming trunk group or ANI, different treatments or cause codes are used to convey problems to the called and calling parties. This typically will result in the transmission of a release message REL and a cause value. The treatment table typically points to the outgoing release table and the database services table see FIG.

    The call rate table contains information that is used to control call attempts on an attempt per second basis. Preferably, attempts from per second to 1 per minute are programmable. The call rate table typically points to the called number screening table , the called number table , the routing table , and the treatment table The percent control table contains information that is used to control call attempts based upon a percent value of the traffic that is processed through call processing. The percent control table typically points to the called number screening table , the called number table , the routing table , and the treatment table They are illustrated in FIG.

    The tables from FIGS. These include a database services table , a signaling connection control part SCCP table , an intermediate signaling network identification ISNI table , a transaction capabilities application part TCAP table , and an advanced intelligent network AIN event parameters table The database services table contains information about the type of database service requested by call processing. After the database function is performed, the call is returned to normal call processing.

    The database services table points to the called number table The SCCP table is referenced by the database services table and provides information to the database services table. The TCAP table is referenced by the database services table and provides information to the database services table. The AIN event parameters table contains information and parameters that are included in the parameters portion of a TCAP event message.

    However, for clarity, the tables have not been duplicated in FIG. The site office table contains information which lists office-wide parameters, some of which are information-based and others which affect call processing. The site office table provides information to the call processor or switch during initialization or other setup procedures, such as population of data or transfer of information to one or more memory locations for use during call processing. The external echo canceller contains information that provides the interface identifier and the echo canceller type when an external echo canceller is required.

    The external echo canceller table provides information to the call processor or switch during initialization or other setup procedures, such as population of data or transfer of information to one or more memory locations for use during call processing. The IWU table contains the internet protocol IP identification numbers for interfaces to the interworking units at the call processor or switch site. The IWU table provides information to the call processor or switch during initialization or other setup procedures, such as population of data or transfer of information to one or more memory locations for use during call processing.

    The CAM interface table provides information to the call processor or switch during initialization or other setup procedures, such as population of data or transfer of information to one or more memory locations for use during call processing. The CAM table provides information to the call processor or switch during initialization or other setup procedures, such as population of data or transfer of information to one or more memory locations for use during call processing.

    It will be appreciated that other versions of tables may be used. In addition, information from the identified tables may be combined or changed to form different tables. The TDM trunk circuit table is used to access information about the originating circuit for originating circuit call processing. It also is used to provide information about the terminating circuit for terminating circuit call processing. The trunk group number of the circuit associated with the call is used to enter the table.

    The group member is the second entry that is used as a key to identify or fill information in the table. The group member identifies the member number of the trunk group to which the circuit is assigned, and it is used for the circuit selection control. The table also contains the trunk circuit identification code TCIC. The echo canceller EC label entry identifies the echo canceller, if any, which is connected to the circuit. The interworking unit IWU label and the interworking unit IWU port identify the hardware location and the port number, respectively, of the interworking unit.

    The initial state specifies the state of the circuit when it is installed. Valid states include blocked if the circuit is installed and blocked from usage, unequipped if the circuit is reserved, and normal if the circuit is installed and available from usage. The ATM trunk circuit table is used to access information about the originating circuit for originating circuit call processing. The group size denotes the number of members in the trunk group.

    The transmit interface label identifies the hardware location of the virtual path on which the call will be transmitted. The transmit interface label may designate either an interworking unit interface or a CAM interface for the designated trunk members. The transmit virtual path identifier VPI is the VP that will be used on the transmission circuit side of the call. The receive interface label identifies the hardware location of the virtual path on which the call will be received. The receive interface label may designate either an interworking unit interface or a CAM interface for the designated trunk members.

    The receive virtual path identifier VPI is the VP that will be used on the reception circuit side of the call. The trunk group number of the trunk group associated with the circuit is used to key into the trunk group table. The administration information field is used for information purposes concerning the trunk group and typically is not used in call processing. The associated point code is the point code for the far end switch or call processor to which the trunk group is connected.

    The common language location identifier CLLI entry is a standardized Bellcore entry for the associated office to which the trunk group is connected. The trunk type identifies the type of the trunk in the trunk group.

    Access Denied

    The associated numbering plan area NPA contains information identifying the switch from which the trunk group is originating or to which the trunk group is terminating. The associated jurisdiction information parameter JIP contains information identifying the switch from which the trunk group is originating or to which the trunk group is terminating.

    The time zone label identifies the time zone that should be used when computing a local date and a local time for use with a day of year table, the day of week table, and the time of day table. The echo canceller information field describes the trunk group echo cancellation requirements. Valid entries for the echo canceller information include normal for a trunk group that uses internal echo cancellation, external for a trunk group that requires external echo cancellers, and disable for a trunk group that requires no echo cancellation for any call passing over the group.

    The satellite entry specifies that the trunk group for the circuit is connected through a satellite. If the trunk group uses too many satellites, then a call should not use the identified trunk group. This field is used in conjunction with the nature of connection satellite indicator field from the incoming IAM to determine if the outgoing call can be connected over this trunk group.

    The select sequence indicates the methodology that will be used to select a connection. Valid entries for the select sequence field include the following: most idle, least idle, ascending, or descending. The interworking unit IWU priority signifies that outgoing calls will attempt to use a trunk circuit on the same interworking unit before using a trunk circuit on a different interworking unit. Glare resolution indicates how a glare situation is to be resolved. Glare is the dual seizure of the same circuit. The switch or call processor with the lower point code value will control the odd number TCICs.

    Continuity control indicates whether continuity is to be checked. Continuity for outgoing calls on the originating call processor are controlled on a trunk group basis. This field specifies whether continuity is not required or whether continuity is required and the frequency of the required check.

    The field identifies a percentage of the calls that require continuity check. The reattempt entry specifies how many times the outgoing call will be re-attempted using a different circuit from the same trunk group after a continuity check failure, a glare, or other connection failure. The treatment label is a label into the treatment table for the trunk group used on the call. Because specific trunk group connections may require specific release causes or treatments for a specific customer, this field identifies the type of treatment that is required.

    The message mapping label is a label into the message mapping table which specifies the backward message configuration that will be used on the trunk group. The queue entry signifies that the terminating part of the trunk group is capable of queuing calls originating from a subscriber that called a number which terminates in this trunk group. The ring no answer entry specifies whether the trunk group requires ring no answer timing. If the entry is set to 0, the call processing will not use the ring no answer timing for calls terminated on the trunk group.

    A number other than 0 specifies the ring no answer timing in seconds for calls terminating on this trunk group. The voice path cut through entry identifies how and when the terminating call's voice path will be cut through on the trunk group. The options for this field include the following: connect for a cut through in both directions after receipt of an ACM, answer for cut through in the backward direction upon receipt of an ACM, then cut through in the forward direction upon receipt of an ANM, or immediate for cut through in both directions immediately after an IAM has been sent.

    The originating class of service COS label provides a label into a class of service table that determines how a call is handled based on the combination of the originating COS and the terminating COS from another trunk group. Based on the combination of this field and the terminating COS of another trunk group's field, the call will be handled differently. For example, the call may be denied, route advanced, or otherwise processed. The terminating class of service COS label provides a label into a class of service table that determines how a call is handled based on the combination of the originating COS from another trunk group and the terminating COS from the present trunk group.

    Based on a combination of this field and the originating COS the call will be handled differently. Call control provides an index to a specific trunk group level traffic management control. Valid entries include normal for no control applied, skip control, applied wide area telecommunications service WATS reroute functionality, cancel control, reroute control overflow, and reroute immediate control.

    The carrier label is the key to enter the table. The carrier identification ID specifies the carrier to be used by the calling party. The carrier selection entry identifies how the caller specifies the carrier. For example, it identifies whether the caller dialed a prefix digit or whether the caller was pre-subscribed. The carrier selection is used to determine how the call will be routed. The next function points to the next table, and the next label defines an area in that table for further call processing.

    Client stories

    The exception label is used as a key to enter the table. The calling party's category entry specifies how to process a call from an ordinary subscriber, an unknown subscriber, or a test phone. For example, international calls might be routed to a pre-selected international carrier. It can be any length and, if filled with less than 15 digits, is filled with Os for the remaining digits. It can be any length and, if filled with less than 15 digits, is filled with 9s for the remaining digits.

    The next function and next label entries point to the next table and the next entry within that table for the next routing function. The OLI label is used as a key to enter the table from a prior next function operation. The originating line information entry specifies the information digits that are being transmitted from a carrier.

    Different calls are differentiated based on the information digits. For example, the information digits may identify an ordinary subscriber, a multi-party line, N00 service, prison service, cellular service, or private pay station. The next function and next label entries point to the next table and the area within that table for the next routing function. The ANI label is used as a key to enter the table from a prior next option.

    The time zone label indicates the entry in the time zone table that should be used when computing the local date and time. The time zone label overrides the time zone information from the trunk group table The customer information entry specifies further customer information on the originating side for call process routing. The echo cancellation EC information field specifies whether or not to apply echo cancellation to the associated ANI. The queue entry identifies whether or not queuing is available to the calling party if the called party is busy.

    Queuing timers determine the length of time that a call can be queued. The treatment label defines how a call will be treated based on information in the treatment table. For example, the treatment label may transmit a call to a specific recording based on a dialed number. The next function and next label point to the next table and an area within that table for further call processing. The called number screening label is used as a key to enter the table. The called number nature of address indicates the type of dialed number, for example, national versus international.

    The nature of address entry allows the call process to route a call differently based on the nature of address value provided. The delete digits field provides the number of digits to be deleted from the called number before processing continues. The next function and next label point to the next table and the area within that table for further call processing.

    The called number label is used as a key to enter the table. The called number nature of address entry indicates the type of dialed number, for example, national versus international. The next function and next label point to a next table and the area within that table used for further call processing. The day of year label is used as a key to enter the table.

    The date field indicates the local date which is applicable to the action to be taken during the processing of this table. The next function and next label identify the table and the area within that table for further call processing. The day of week label is a key that is used to enter the table.

    The next function and next label identify the next table and the area within that table for further call processing. The time of day label is used as a key to enter the table from a prior next function. The next function and next label entries identify the next table and the area within that table for further call processing. The time zone label is used as a key to enter the table and to process an entry so that a customer's local date and time may be computed.

    The daylight savings entry indicates whether daylight savings time is used during the summer in this time zone. The routing label is used as a key to enter the table from a prior next function. The route number specifies a route within a route list. Call processing will process the route choices for a given route label in the order indicated by the route numbers. The signal route label is associated with the next action to be taken by call processing for this call. The signal route label provides the index to access the message mapping label.

    The signal route label is used in order to modify parameter data fields in a signaling message that is being propagated to a next switch or a next call processor. The originating trunk COS label and the terminating trunk COS label are used as keys to enter the table and define call processing. The next function identifies the next action that will be taken by call processing for this call.

    Valid entries in the next function column may be continued, treat, route advanced, or routing.


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    • Based on these entries call processing may continue using the current trunk group, transmit the calls to treatment, skip the current trunk group and the routing table and go to the next trunk group on the list, or send the call to a different label in the routing table.

      The next label entry is a pointer that defines the trunk circuit group that the next function will use to process the call. This field is ignored when the next function is continued or route advanced. The treatment label is a key that is used to enter the table. The treatment label is a designation in a call process that determines the disposition of the call. For each treatment label, there will be a set of error conditions and cause values that will be associated with a series of labels for the call processing error conditions and a series of labels for all incoming release message cause values.

      The outgoing release label is used as a key to enter the table for processing. The outgoing cause value location identifies the type of network to be used. For example, the location entry may specify a local or remote network or a private, transit, or international network. The cause value designates error, maintenance, or non-connection processes. The percent label is used as a key to enter the table. The control percentage specifies the percentage of incoming calls that will be affected by the control.

      The control next function allows attempts for call connection to be routed to another table during call processing. The control next label points to an area within that table for further call processing. The passed next function allows only incoming attempts to be routed to another table. The next label points to an area in that table for further call processing.

      The call rate label is used as a key to enter the table. The call rate specifies the number of calls that will be passed by the control on or for completion. Call processing will use this information to determine if the incoming call number falls within this control. The control next function allows a blocked call attempt to be routed to another table. The control next label is a pointer that defines the area in the next table for further call processing. The passed next function allows only an incoming call attempt to be rerouted to another table. The passed next function is a pointer that defines an area in that table for further call processing.

      The database services label is used as a key to enter the table. The service type determines the type of logic that is applied when building and responding to database queries.

      01 Tr3263eu00tr 0201 Course Intro

      Service types include local number portability and N00 number translation. The next function identifies the location for the next routing function based on information contained in the database services table as well as information received from a database query. The next label entry specifies an area within the table identified in the next function for further processing. The SCCP label is used as a key to enter the field.

      The message type entry identifies the type of message that will be sent in the SCCP message. Message types include Unitdata messages and Extended Unitdata messages. The protocol class entry indicates the type of protocol class that will be used for the message specified in the message type field. The protocol class is used for connectionless transactions to determine whether messages are discarded or returned upon an error condition. The message handling field identifies how the destination call processor or switch is to handle the SCCP message if it is received with errors.

      This field will designate that the message is to be discarded or returned. The hop counter entry denotes the number of nodes through which the SCCP message can route before the message is returned with an error condition. The route indicator subfield identifies whether or not this SCCP message requires a special type of routing to go through other networks. The mark identification subfield identifies whether or not network identification will be used for this SCCP message.